Resumo OBJECTIVES: The goal of this study was to investigate the association between tooth wear and salivary measures in a random sample of patients from practices of dentist members of a practice-based research network. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Patients completed a questionnaire on oral self-care, health, dietary habits, medications, and socio-demographic variables. Six salivary characteristics (consistency, resting salivary flow, resting salivary pH, stimulated salivary flow, stimulated salivary pH, and buffering capacity) were measured, and a dental examination included categorizing patients according to the dentist's judgment of the degree of tooth wear (i.e., none/minimal, some, or severe/extreme). Bivariate and multinomial logistic regression models were used to relate salivary characteristics and other factors to the outcome of tooth wear. RESULTS: Data are reported from 1,323 patients (age range 16-97 years) from 61 practices. Patient age, gender, number of teeth, and perception of dry mouth were associated with tooth wear, but salivary and dietary factors were either weakly or not related. CONCLUSIONS: The findings of this cross-sectional assessment suggest that using these salivary tests and dietary assessments in real-life clinical settings is unlikely to be useful in assessing tooth wear risk. Suggestions are offered about risk assessment for tooth wear. CLINICAL RELEVANCE: Assessing a dental patient's risk of tooth wear using salivary measures and dietary assessments as described is not recommended for general dental practice until stronger evidence exists indicating its utility.